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Literature Reviews

Model Programs Guide Literature Review: Substance Use Prevention Programs

Youth substance use prevention programs aim to promote abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs and the misuse of over-the-counter drugs. They differ from treatment programs, which focus on youths who have been clinically diagnosed with a substance abuse problem. A variety of approaches have been developed that work with families, schools, and communities to help children and adolescents develop skills and approaches to prevent or...

Literature Review: Hate Crimes and Youth

In the United States, hate crimes are complex and often underreported crimes (Levin et al., 2007; Kena and Thompson, 2021; Pezella, Fetzer, and Keller, 2019). For a crime to be considered a hate crime there must be a motivation (in part or in whole) to commit the crime based on a bias against a particular social group of people. The bias may be based on race...

Literature Review: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Juvenile Justice Processing

Data have shown that youths of color are more likely than white youths to be arrested and subsequently go deeper into the juvenile justice system (e.g., Puzzanchera, 2021; Puzzanchera and Hockenberry, 2013; Sickmund et al., 2021; Sickmund, Sladky, and Kang, 2021). Researchers have examined the contributing factors to these racial and ethnic disparities for decades, often testing hypotheses and theoretical frameworks related to differential offending...

Evidence-based Programs

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) encourages the use of evidence-based programs and practices. Evidence-based programs and practices generally have one or more rigorous outcome evaluations that demonstrated effectiveness by measuring the relationship between the program and its intended outcome(s). This includes measuring the direction and size of a change in outcome and the extent to which a change may be attributed...

Literature Review: Teen Dating Violence

During adolescence, many youths enter their first romantic relationship (Goncy, Farrell, and Sullivan, 2016; Scott et al., 2011; East and Hokoda, 2014). In some of these romantic relationships, adolescents may experience teen dating violence, as either a perpetrator or a victim—and many as both (Basile et al., 2020; Taylor and Mumford, 2016; Ybarra et al., 2016). Such abuse or victimization can have significant impacts on...