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Model Programs Guide Literature Review: Gun Violence and Youth/Young Adults

NCJ Number
Date Published
March 2024

This review of literature discusses intentional gun violence involving youth aged 10 to 24 years, noting various federal data sources on gun violence; risk factors for youth gun violence perpetration; protective factors for youth; policy research on guns; public health perspectives on gun violence; outcome evidence; and the conclusion reviews legal impacts and implications for policymakers.


This document provides a review of available research, focused on intentional gun violence involving youth between the ages of 10 to 24 years. Data sources for this review include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other sources in those cases where federal data were not available. Data reviewed on gun violence include the following topics: overall youth gun homicide; youth victims of homicide; homicide committed by youth; nonfatal gun violence, youth gun suicide; youth exposure to community gun violence; school gun violence; and international comparisons of youth gun violence. The literature review includes an in-depth discussion of risk factors for youth, such as violence exposure, delinquent peers, involvement in crime or delinquency, and availability of firearms. Evidence suggests that factors that may protect youth against involvement in gun violence are: family attachment and parental monitoring; relationships with supportive adults; individual protective factors; and community-level protective factors. Policy research on guns is also included, with an annotated listing of five relevant federal laws.

Date Published: March 1, 2024