This fact sheet outlines the special provisions that support Tribal youth in the Juvenile Justice Reform Act (JJRA) of 2018, which became effective in fiscal year (FY) 2020 (October 1, 2019).
Congress enacted the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act in 1974. This landmark legislation established the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), with the mandated mission to support local and state efforts to prevent delinquency and improve the juvenile justice system. The JJRA of 2018 reauthorized and substantially amended the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974. It has five provisions for support of Tribal Youth. One provision pertains to OJJDP's consultation with representatives of Indian Tribes in the implementation of JJRA provisions related to Indian Tribes. A second JJRA provision requires the production of an annual report that includes a description of the funding provided to Indian Tribes for juvenile delinquency or prevention programs under the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. A third JJRA provision requires States to implement regular 3-year plans that include the input of individuals with expertise in Tribal law enforcement and juvenile justice in Indian Tribal Communities. A fourth provision mandates that within 1 year of the JJRA's enactment, research must be conducted to support the identification of barriers faced by state and Indian Tribes in providing services to juveniles who were under the care of the state child welfare system prior to placement in the juvenile justice system. The fifth JJRA provision that involves Indian Tribes is the continuation of funding for Tribal delinquency prevention and 11 percent of Title V funding for Tribal Youth programs.