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Model Programs Guide Literature Review: Hate Crimes and Youth

NCJ Number
Date Published
February 2022
28 pages

This literature review will discuss the involvement of youths in hate crimes, both perpetration and victimization. It will provide definitions of hate crimes and related terms. The review will also provide an overview of the history of hate crime legislation in the United States, of hate crime rates and trends, of recruitment of youth into hate groups, and of interventions to prevent or reduce the occurrence of youth hate crimes. It also will discuss the consequences of hate crime and bias-based harassment of youth and examine the gaps in the literature. 


Hate crimes are viewed as distinct from other crimes because often the impact of the crime is felt not only by the victim but also by other members of the targeted group.  Victims of hate crimes may be chosen specifically because of their membership in a particular targeted group; individuals who perpetrate hate crimes may be strangers to those they harm. Hate crimes can present a challenge for law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice personnel involved in the case. While there is a plethora of hate crime research in general, specific research examining youths' involvement in hate crimes and bias incidents (either perpetration or victimization) is less common. There is information on estimated rates of youth hate crime perpetration and victimization, but there is little research on other areas of interest, such as specific characteristics of youth perpetrators and victims; on what leads youths to commit hate crimes (including risk factors that influence the commission of a hate crime); and on the relationship between hate crimes and other at-risk/problem behaviors (such as bullying, harassment, or violence) committed by youth. 

Date Published: February 1, 2022